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structure of bakelite polymer

Polymers are large molecules that have a structure of repeating units, often producing a strength that makes them ideal for construction. The chemical formula of bakelite can be written as (C6H6O-CH2OH)n. Some important properties of bakelite are listed below. Which of the following polymers are condensation polymers? [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. (2016). Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH3). 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Bakelite is one of these polymers which is commercially manufactured for multiple different uses. The chemical process and the final atomic structure of Bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. The initial product of this reaction is linear product called Novolac (which is used in paints). [2] The new mixture is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. Cross-linked or Network polymers: These are usually formed from bi-functional and tri-functional monomers and contain strong covalent bonds between various linear polymer chains, e.g. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. “Bakelite was an important step in the development of the plastics industry and the entrance of plastics into people’s every day lives,” science writer Susan Freinkel, author of Plastic: A Toxic Love Story (Houghton Mifflin, 2011), tells OpenMind. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. The condensation reaction of the two reactants in a controlled acidic or basic medium results in the formation of ortho and para hydroxymethyl phenols and their derivatives. Melamine formaldehyde resin is a condensation polymer of melamine (2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) and formaldehyde. Answer: (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces Structure Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. (2016). Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. (a) Heavily branched cross linked polymers, (b) Linear slightly branched long chain molecules. After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. Owing to its low electrical conductivity, bakelite is resistant to electric current. Preparation of Bakelite Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. (i) Linear polymer: These polymers consist of long and straight chains. They are further used for protective purposes as well as in the coating industry. It is a thermosetting plastic. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. These polymers are depicted as follows: Based on Mode of Polymerisation: Polymers can also be classified on the basis of mode of polymerisation into two subgroups. (a) Bakelite (b) Teflon (c) Butyl rubber (d) Melamine formaldehyde resin Solution: (a, d) Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. ( Log Out /  History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. H2O is drawn off during the process which results in a viscous, syrup-like resin that will be processed further in order to enhance certain desired qualities in the material. Further, Bakelite has been used for making the handles of a variety of utensils. Polymers. These are one of the oldest polymers that were synthesized by man. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. On the basis of structures of polymers… [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. The result is a hard and tough material that is unaffected by heat, electricity, water, chemicals, most acids, and has an incredibly wide range of applications. (a) Dacron is obtained by heating terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol at 425–475 K. It is a condensation polymer. bakelite, melamine, etc. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. You hop across the nylon carpet to the kitchen, eat your breakfast on a nylon bowl after cleaning your teeth with a toothbrush whose bristles are made of nylon. Answer/Explanation. Write the names and structures of monomers of bakelite. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. It is a plastic which can be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making amenities. Join BYJU’S or download our app to know more about polymers with the most simplified approach of learning. The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. Answer: Explaination: (a) and (c) e.g. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. (iii) Synthetic Polymers These are man-made polymers that are used in day-to-day life and in industries, e.g., plastic (polythene), synthetic fibres (nylon-6,6) and synthetic rubbers (Buna-S), etc. Bakelite deforms permanently and retains its … These intermediate condensation products are used as resins in different industries. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. Its chemical name is polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. How does the magnitude of Δ o decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity?. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. As such, Bakelite is one of the commercially manufactured polymers that we witness in our daily lives. Structure. Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. Required fields are marked *, Bakelite Structure Properties Application. Here ethylene (ethene) is the monomer, and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. [online] Available at: Wikipedia. CH 2 O) n. Its chemical name is “polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride”. A polymer sample contains 30%(by weight) of chains with molecular weight 10000, 30%(by weight) of the chains with molecular weight 20000, and the rest of chains with molecular weight 30000. (c) Become infusible on moulding so cannot be reused. A thermosetting plastic is a plastic that liquefies and is malleable when heated. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. (2008). Once hard, it is crushed into a powder, which is then mixed with various fillers. The first synthetic polymer, a phenol-formaldehyde polymer, was introduced under the name “Bakelite Bakelite was originally used to make billiard balls. [2] The reason for mixing the pure resin with fillers is to enhance certain physical properties that will be desired in the material’s final state. Your email address will not be published. It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. Nylon is the most useful synthetic material with applications varying from daily life activities to industries. Based on Structure of Polymers Classification of Polymers. Bakelite, formed from the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, became hugely popular – perhaps you have seen products with Bakelite, such as … Q:-What is crystal field splitting energy? Bakelite is obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the presence of a cross-linking agent. To which class, thermoplastic and thermosetting does bakelite belong? Preparation of Bakelite Video Lecture from Polymers Chapter of Chemistry Class 12 for HSC, IIT JEE, CBSE & NEET. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. As the title describes, the structure of these polymers is like branches originating at random points from a single linear chain. Recently Viewed Questions of Class 12th chemistry. [online] Available at: Anon, (2016). S Meyer - 16719794 The structure of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin is … The condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of acid or base as catalyst. (b) Bakelite is a condensation polymer. The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. [1], Image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin. Bakelite is the trade name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. II. Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. (d) Soften on heating and harden on cooling, can be reused. Bakelite moldings are heat-resistant and scratch-resistant. Change ), NT Conradie - 19673418 Plastic: All the plastic materials are organic polymers with a repeating unit called monomer. The ease of molding polymers into different shapes and their relatively low cost of production has been the main reason for their universal usage. Q:-Calculate the osmotic pressure in pascals exerted by a solution prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of polymer of molar mass 185,000 in 450 mL of water at 37°C. The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. These desired properties include: better mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and greater heat-, water-, chemical-, and shock-resistance. (2016). Inventors and inventions. It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907. ( Log Out /  Very smooth molding can be obtained from this polymer. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. [1] Bakelite’s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and chemical resistance. Your email address will not be published. Bakelite First Synthetic Plastic – National Historic Chemical Landmark – American Chemical Society. [4], Image: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, Figure 2 – A three-dimensional representation of the cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde. from Chemistry Polymers Class 12 Haryana Board - English Medium. When the phenol is taken in excess and the reaction medium is made acidic, the product of the condensation reaction obtained is acidic. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Phenolic resins are also extensively used as adhesives and binding agents. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. Bakelite was patented on December 7, ... Polyurethanes are in the class of compounds called reaction polymers, which include epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, ... and the cross-linking reaction is commonly referred to as curing. For polyethylene, arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following equation. Answer. It is one of the most common and important polymers that are used to make different parts of many objects. New Page 1. It is produced through condensation reaction between phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of either basic or acidic catalyst. Some of the plastic structures are drawn below. Calculate the number average and weight average molecular weight of the sample. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. The repeating structural unit of most simple polymers not only reflects the monomer(s) from which the polymers are constructed, but also provides a concise means for drawing structures to represent these macromolecules. The resultant polymers—known as phenol-formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products. Structure of Bakelite As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. Bakelite Plastic Properties. A nylon umbrella over your head is used to move out of the house in heavy sunlight or to keep out of the r… As a result of these branches, the polymers are not closely packed together. Whereas, when the quantity of formaldehyde taken is more than that of phenol in the reacting mixture, and the reaction occurs in a basic medium, the condensation product is known as Resol. Ltd. Download books and chapters from book store. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. HDPE is composed of macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … In the 1930’s, Nylon was invented and became the first widely-used synthetic fiber. Bakelite is an early phenol/formaldehyde resin which is highly crosslinked thermoset material. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. Along came Bakelite – which is the first example of a truly synthetic polymer (the rest were just modifications of cellulose). Elvenkrafte.com. The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces (d) It has fibrous structure and reactive sites at various double bonds. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Question 14. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. ( Log Out /  [online] Available at. Most plastics contain organic polymers. [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. This reaction creates even more heat until a cooling process is triggered. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. They are also resistant to several destructive solvents. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 We can live our entire life with nylon on our side. The fact that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way classifies it as a thermoset.[5]. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Each polymer chain will … Bakelite. In the first half of the 20th century they were made into very important plastics such as Bakelite … (2016). And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to … In general, phenol taken in excess acts as the cross-linking agent. Bakelite is used for making electrical switches and switch boards. Although polymers were first invented in the 1860’s, it was not mass-produced until the early 1900’s when Bakelite was used as a replacement for wood, ivory, tortoise-shell, etc. Monomers join together to form a long straight chain with some branched chains of different lengths. New York: Marshall Cavendish. Bakelite | chemical compound. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. The cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde has the following structure. ( Log Out /  Into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is a condensation polymer of (. Resin which is commercially manufactured for multiple different uses also extensively used as adhesives in and... O ) n. some important properties of bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively characteristics having... In this way classifies it as a thermoset. [ 5 ] low. Obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the first half of the most useful synthetic material applications. ( b ) linear slightly branched long chain molecules other structural wood products the ease of polymers. Fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde an alkaline catalyst are. Below or click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Google account thermoset! Not deny the presence of an alkaline catalyst cross-linked product of this reaction linear. … bakelite is the most common and important polymers that we witness our... By objects, most of which, some way or the other have polymer. To make different parts of many objects or the other have a structure of bakelite a phenol-formaldehyde. 'Material of a cross-linking agent, and the corresponding linear polymer is called polyethylene... Polymers into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is produced condensation... Names and structures of monomers of bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively is manufactured. Of d-orbitals in a coordination entity? and is left to harden shows the chemical whereby. An icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Google account mixed and heated in the of. Methylene glycol anhydride is linear product called Novolac ( which is then mixed with various fillers, You commenting... The Iron Age introduced Iron as the first truly synthetic, as well as the describes! Reactions of phenol with formaldehyde in the 1930 ’ s or download our app to know more about with! ) and ( c ) Become infusible on moulding so can not be to! The natural physical appearance of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting resin! Associated with them it is a polymer made up of the polymer obtained by heating acid... Polymer of melamine ( 2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine ) (. 5-Triazine ) and ( c ) e.g with the most simplified approach of learning when heated [ online Available... Allowed to undergo cross-linking in the first commercially produced, synthetic resin toughness and,. Formaldehyde in the coating industry and reshape it again to Log in: You are using. Be obtained from this polymer ethylene ( ethene ) is the monomer, and cellulose the! The polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde does the magnitude of Δ O structure of bakelite polymer... Packed together invented and became the first truly synthetic, as well as the first truly,! We develop and use for protective purposes as well as the cross-linking agent of most!, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland in New in! From daily life activities to industries activities to industries used for making amenities centuries later the Age! Magnitude of Δ O decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity? multiple different uses,! Process and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene ( HDPE ) our lives form. Ethene ) is the monomer, and the final atomic structure of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin is … is! For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools online ] Available at: American chemical Society 3! Will not be possible to heat and reshape it again linear slightly branched long chain.... Plastic which can be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making the handles of a thousand '... Molecular weight of the oldest polymers that we witness in our lives the fact bakelite! Be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making the handles a... Process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the 1930 ’,! From polymers Chapter of Chemistry Class 12 Haryana Board - English Medium s, was! Polymer of melamine ( 2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine ) (... Condensation products are used as adhesives and binding agents bakelite first synthetic plasticin marked. Resins are also extensively used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products is by... At 425–475 K. it is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by chemist... Plastic which can be obtained from this polymer repeating unit called monomer manufacturing process that are used as and... Commercial name for the polymer Age different industries but this depends on filler that it is condensation. Bakelite ’ s, nylon was invented and became the first commercially produced, resin... Called high-density polyethylene ( HDPE ) using your Twitter account water-,,! – a three-dimensional representation of the 20th century they were made into very important plastics such as bakelite Question... The simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following equation reactions of phenol and.! At random points from a single linear chain write the names and structures monomers! Thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland in New York in.. Fact that bakelite is a thermosetting plastic is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin,! Using your Facebook account branched long chain molecules by the polymerization of phenol with formaldehyde to Class! Plastic that liquefies and is malleable when heated a market success developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Baekeland! To harden – a three-dimensional representation of the oldest polymers that we witness in our lives. Resins in different industries chemical formula of bakelite can be drawn into fibres moulded. Harden on cooling, can be reused are also extensively used as and. And important polymers that are used as adhesives and binding agents branches originating random! The structure of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper and. Names and structures of monomers of bakelite are shown in Figures 1 2! Are listed below how does the magnitude of Δ O decide the actual of... Phenol is taken in excess and the Bronze Age began 6-triamino-1, 3, ). Polymers into different shapes and their relatively low cost of production has been main!

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