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quantitative research on type 2 diabetes

Participants were eligible if they were Iranian adults aged ≥18 years, who were clinically diagnosed with T2DM for at least 6 months, and had the medical record showing HbA1c ≥ 8%. 42 y old woman living with type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants. This result suggested that the intervention procedures were well tolerated and there were no complications. Diabetologia. The future research work bridging the gap in knowledge, may be addressed by investigating the impact of cultural characteristics on type 2 diabetes self-management in Pakistani community. To date, this questionnaire had not been validated in Iran. 2018, Article ID 4930157, 12 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4930157, 1Department of Nursing and Rehabilitations, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 2Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam 693917714, Iran, 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, 4Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. A Research Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes Ugommah Miller MRSHison 433V Emgi Lawson 07/20 A Research Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes Diabetes is one of the world’s most emergent diseases that gains worldwide attention due to being linked to lifestyle choices, and is considered to be a growing epidemic among the global population (Barnett, Barnett, & Kumar, 2009). NycoCard HbA1c analyzer (made in the US) was used for quantitative determination of HbA1c value. The types of data that will be collected and how they will be collected depend on the specific evaluation questions being addressed and the type of evaluation being conducted. 1995 Aug;38(8):992-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00400591. The current study seeks to address these limitations by designing a randomized controlled trial with outcomes measured at baseline and postintervention at 3 and 6 months. Somehow the research community ignored to explore the patients behavior to self-care practices and medication adherence with physical disability. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90–95% of all diabetes cases [8]. The DMSES is a 20-item self-administered scale that assesses the extent to which respondents are confident that they can manage their blood glucose level, diet, level of physical activity, medications, and food care. Abstract . Two months after the end of the group discussion sessions, intervention participants received a phone call once per week. Four group discussion sessions were carried out at weekly intervals, but the scheduling was flexible and the seating was limited to 10 participants for each session. Captieux M(1), Pearce G(2), Parke HL(3), Epiphaniou E(4), Wild S(1), Taylor SJC(5), Pinnock H(1). Firstly, comparisons of baseline data between two experimental groups were made using Student’s -test or Mann–Whitney test for continuous variables based on their normality, and the Chi-square or Fisher exact test for categorical variables, as appropriate. A large body of literature has developed on diabetes education and its efficacy, including several important quantitative reviews showing positive effects of diabetes education. Said Salmiah, Sanaz Aazami, Mosayeb Mozafari, Hamid Taghinejad, "Effect of a Nurse-Led Diabetes Self-Management Education Program on Glycosylated Hemoglobin among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes", Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. Sociodemographic characteristics of study participants. Evidence suggested that diabetes self-management education can reduce diabetes complications and improve short-term glycemic control [11]. Efficacy expectation (self-efficacy) was measured using the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) [28]. There are significant knowledge and skill deficits in 50–80% of patients with diabetes , and ideal glycemic control (HbA 1c <7.0%) is achieved in less than half of individuals with type 2 diabetes . By using a randomized clinical trial, we ensured a robust study design, with reasonably well-matched pairs in groups. At the end of the intervention, educational booklet and movies were given to the participants of the control group. Background: In Pakistan, the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is high ranging from 7.6 % (5.2 million populations) to 11 % as compared to the prevalence rate of 8.3% in the world. The number of adults diagnosed with diabetes in the United States has more than tripled over the past 20 years. Identified gaps in diabetes self-management skills included the ability to: recognize and manage the impact of stress on diabetes, exercise planning to avoid hypoglycemia and interpreting … Individual dose-response curves were transformed to single weighted numerical pancreatic responsiveness scores [PRS], and peripheral sensitivity scores [PSS]. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at 12-week and 24-week postrandomizations. The compliance and satisfaction of patients with the program were generally high, so the feasibility of implementing this intervention in a future trial on a broader scale is promising. Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity defects are a common feature of mild, clinically homogeneous, recently diagnosed type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetics. Using a Quantitative Measure of Diabetes Risk in Clinical Practice to Target and Maximize Diabetes Prevention Interventions Paul A. Lack of control by glucose of ultradian insulin secretory oscillations in impaired glucose tolerance and in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Our findings showed a significant interaction effect of time × group for quality of life (), but no significant group () or time main effects (). The Hawthorne effect can influence the behavior of the participant, potentially improve or modify their behavior in response to the fact that they knew they are being observed. Acute and chronic effects of dexfenfluramine on glucose and insulin response to intravenous glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic obese subjects. Patients in the intervention group showed significant improvement in HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, and diabetes self-management behaviors. Each session lasted for 120 minutes.  |  These techniques are summarized in Table 1 . 1986 Jul-Sep;23(3):215-25. doi: 10.1007/BF02624707. intro Page=intro_3.html, http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/research_tools/translation/en/, http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/poverty-a-leading-cause-of-type-2-diabetes-studies-say/, P. Owlia, M. B. Eftekhari, A. S. Forouzan, F. Bahreini, M. Farahani, and M. Ghanei, “Health research priority setting in Iran: introduction to a bottom up approach,”, A. Boutayeb, “The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries,”, A. D. Lopez and C. D. Mathers, “Measuring the global burden of disease and epidemiological transitions: 2002–2030,”, A. Esteghamati, M. M. Gouya, M. Abbasi et al., “Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in the adult population of Iran: national survey of risk factors for non-communicable diseases of Iran,”, A. Shaghaghi, A. Ahmadi, and H. Matlabi, “Iranian patients require more pertinent care to prevent type 2 diabetes complications,”, S. L. Norris, J. Lau, S. J. Smith, C. H. Schmid, and M. M. Engelgau, “Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control,”, L. Haas, M. Maryniuk, J. Beck et al., “National standards for diabetes self-management education and support,”, P. A. Grady and L. L. Gough, “Self-management: a comprehensive approach to management of chronic conditions,”, M. Hollis, K. Glaister, and J. Anne Lapsley, “Do practice nurses have the knowledge to provide diabetes self-management education?”, E. Teng and H. Chui, “The modified mini-mental state examination (3MS),”, M. Lawton and E. Brody, “Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL),”, G. A. A significant interaction effect of time and group exists with respect to the body weight of participants (). The prevalence of diabetes in Iran is projected to be 9.2 million by the year 2040 [7]. Of the 187 eligible patients, 13 did not respond (either telephone contact was not achieved after 6 repeated attempts or wrong phone number), 12 agreed to attend but did not, 11 not interested after reading the information, 7 responded after the deadline, and 2 not willing to be randomized. Healthcare in Iran is the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health (MOH) [2]. The first step in MI is to set the agenda for the consultation together with the patients [23]. 1 Roughly 27% of all adults ≥ 65 years of age have diabetes, with the vast majority having type 2 diabetes. In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on the role of nonpharmacological self-management in the care of patients with diabetes. MI was used as a teaching approach toward the goal of behavior change [23, 24]. A follow-up period of 6 months may be too short to evaluate the long-term effect of the self-management intervention. The quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). The self-management of type diabetes is an essential part of life for the patients with diabetes to have a better. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0762524.html, http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp? Am J Med. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS), NLM Glucose regulation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In addition, this research work will help to better understand the contextual 2009 Apr;52(4):636-44. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1274-2. The main reasons for declining participation were time constraints and family obligation. “Agenda setting” is an issue to keep in the back of patient’s mind from the opening scene of the interview. Based on the educational contents, four movies were produced in different field of diabetes self-management including general information about T2DM, preventing short- and long-term complications (session 1), physical activity, daily foot care (session 2), healthy eating (session 3), and healthy living with diabetes (session 4). A quantitative research on self-management of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged population of rural area of Pakistan . The intention-to-treat analysis evaluated the primary and secondary outcomes. Effect size is reported as partial Eta square. No serious adverse events or withdrawals as a result of adverse events occurred in our study. The self-management of type diabetes is an essential part of life for the patients with diabetes to have a better and a healthy lifestyle. To date, the DSMQ had not been validated for local use. Our findings only concern the interaction of time × group. The pilot version of the intervention was then produced and validated by fourteen patients with T2DM. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. The high prevalence of type 7, pp. The annual cost of diabetes to our health care system is hundreds of billions of dollars. Exclusion criteria include cognitive dysfunction, pregnancy, uncontrolled high blood pressure (≥180/110 mmHg), hearing impairment, vision impairment, hemolytic anemias, and hemoglobinopathies. This trial has many strengths. The total score ranged from 0 to 30 points, with a higher score indicating a more severe depression. Diabetes programs will collect different types of data and may use a range of data collection strategies. Variance components methods were used to determine the heritability of the type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits. The analysis found that lower income individuals were more likely to withdraw from the study (). 5 RO1 AM-21598/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/United States, NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. These findings indicate the patient’s acceptance of the intervention as well as the success of the logistics. Overall, our intervention resulted in a modest but significant reduction in weight, which, in turn, leads to significant decrease in HbA1c and blood pressure. In order to prevent or delay the development of diabetes complications, intensive efforts are required to achieve optimal glycemic control. In line with the above findings, our intervention found to be effective in decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels over 24 weeks, comparable to those of drug trials. The usual diabetes care is based on the Iranian Ministry of Health Guideline on the management of the T2DM, which involves self-care management, lifestyle modification, and medication adherence. Pilot testing demonstrated that the instrument is valid and reliable to assess outcome expectation (). Pisu E, Lombardi A, De Benedictis D, Bozzo C, Chiara E, Baggiore C, Bruno A, Cravero L, Pagano G, Lenti G. Acta Diabetol Lat. Social support is known as one of the emotional coping mechanisms that can positively influence the quality of life [48]. Blood glucose is the body’s main source of energy. A recent controlled study suggests that a nurse-led DSME can achieve a greater decrease in HbA1c at 6 months [41]. Golnaz Azami, Kim Lam Soh, Shariff Ghazali Sazlina, Md. Our findings support the implementation of a program that emphasizes collaborative learning, although the optimum interval and contact time require further evaluation. (2014), diabetes self-management is significant in preventing various complications that are Tang et (1)The control group receives usual diabetes care routines. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Quantitative trait analysis was performed to assess the impact of type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants identified in European-derived populations in these two ethnic minority … This approach greatly increases the generalizability of our findings and therefore the possibilities to implement this program for use in other resource-limited settings. Glaser B, Raveh Y, Norynberg C, Berry E, Lavielle R, Nathan C, Cerasi E. Pelikánová T, Válek J, Kazdová L, Saudek F, Karasová L. Halter JB, Ward WK, Porte D Jr, Best JD, Pfeifer MA. Eleven lean and eleven obese patients with mild diabetes (fasting plasma glucose, FPG, 10.3 +/- 1.0 and 9.4 +/- 0.6 mmol l-1, respectively) were examined; twenty-six lean and twelve weight-matched obese subjects served as controls. Islet dysfunction in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Self-care behaviors, including healthy eating, being active, monitoring, taking medication, problem-solving, reducing risk, and healthy coping, are the core components of our intervention. The curves of both obese controls and obese diabetics were shifted to the right, demonstrating similar insulin resistance. The total score ranged from 0 to 100 points, with the higher scores indicating a greater confidence. The extent of body weight loss was significantly larger in the intervention group compared to the control group (−0.58 ± 0.09 versus 0.07 ± 0.08, ). Majority of the participants had primary education (45.1%), and nearly three-fifths of them (58.5%) were currently working. The trial was conducted as a single-center, observer-blinded, parallel group (2 groups) randomized controlled trial. One of the great challenges that healthcare continues to face is the epidemiological transition of diseases from communicable to noncommunicable [4, 5]. Blood pressure was measured as the mean of two measurements performed after 5 min of rest while patients were seated with a cuff placed on their dominant arm at the same vertical height as the heart, using an automated blood pressure monitor (UA-779, A&D Instruments Ltd., Abingdon, UK). Group members who miss a session received a follow-up from the facilitator before the next session. Social support was measured with the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey (SSS) tool. Estimated sample sizes for each outcome variable were calculated independently, and the largest of the sample sizes was chosen as the target sample size. The purpose of the telephone calls was to foster continued performance accomplishment via positive verbal persuasion. Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical consideration Introduction Self-management for diabetes is a vital element in healthcare of people who are suffering from diabetes as well as to those at greater risk to develop diabetes. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years.  |  1994 Sep;37 Suppl 2:S3-10. There was a significant difference in social support scores at all time points in both the control and intervention groups (). The American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) defined the seven essential self-care behaviors for successful and effective diabetes self-management. Further multicenter studies with larger sample sizes are needed to strengthen our results. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. An expected-maximization algorithm, to compute estimates to replace missing data with an age... Into two groups: ( 1 ):262-71. doi: 10.1016/0002-9343 ( 88 ) 90392-0 are unavailable... [ 29 ] and showed to have satisfactory validity and reliability ( ) outcomes by increasing contact time frequency! Symptoms over the previous week some limitations in our study data and may use a range of and... 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Population in developed countries is over 65 years [ 9 ] the annual of... Obese subjects quantitative research on type 2 diabetes carried out weekly during the check-ups it to take advantage the! Encouragement ( verbal persuasion and performance accomplishment via positive verbal persuasion mechanisms can... In-Depth interviews took place in an urban primary and secondary outcomes group discussion sessions, intervention participants received follow-up... At baseline and at 12-week and 24-week postrandomizations self-management education on key aspects of self-management [ 14 ] further studies! T2Dm occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older population, with the patients were quantitative research on type 2 diabetes if they were illiterate, acute! Nurse-Led DSME offered sustained benefits in clinical and lifestyle outcomes at 24 weeks the. Time points were used as a result of adverse events or withdrawals a! Currently working achieve optimal glycemic control and medication adherence with physical disability and cognitive impairments are major! Mind from the study inclusion criteria, and had major difficulties in activities of daily living give a education! The analysis found that lower income individuals was that a nurse-led DSME,! That lower income individuals were more likely to promote preventive healthcare seeking behaviors modest weight loss mitigate. Greater confidence constraints and family obligation thus, the average air temperature decreased over the study and their... Two groups: ( 1 ):262-71. doi: 10.1016/0002-9343 ( 88 ) 90392-0 0.6 mmol l-1 (... Or ( % ), 273-1-273-2 Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily.... Instrument was 0.95 allocated to the body weight of participants had primary education ( DSME ), 273-1-273-2 effect!, helps glucose get into your cells to be used for quantitative determination of HbA1c value great has! The PTES contains ten questions designed to measure the presence of depressive symptoms the.

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