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rif war chemical weapons

During the Third Rif War in Spanish Morocco between 1921 and 1927, the Spanish Army of Africa dropped chemical warfare agents in an attempt to put down the Riffian Berber rebellion led by guerrilla leader Abd el-Krim.. The 5 nerve agents, tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclohexylsarin (GF), and VX, have chemical structures similar to the common organophosphate pesticide Malathion. During Operation Cut Holes and Sink ‘Em (CHASE) from 1967 to 1970, thousands of tons of unwanted chemical warfare agents and ammunition were disposed of by loading the… In this war, they too extensively used sulfur mustard against insurgent-supporting civilian populations. Mimoun Charqi, author of the book Chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Rif (Armes chimiques de destruction massive sur le Rif), 70% of adults and 50 % of children who received cancer treatment in the hospital in Rabat in 2015 were originally from the north of the country, and in particular from the towns of Al Hoceima and Nador. The Spanish were first class dick heads and war criminals during the Rif war, but I don’t think anyone describes it as an ethnic cleansing campaign. Spain made intensive use of German chemical weapons during the Rif independence War in the 1920s to combat the Riffian resistance. 100% (1/1) against civilians chemical bombs against the population chemical weapons. The amount of stockpiled chemical warfare agents in the United States is thought to have reached nearly 40,000 tons by 1968. - Iraq, 1980-88: During the Iran-Iraq war, Saddam Hussein's forces used mustard gas, cyanide and sarin gas against Iranian soldiers and civilians. The low point of the war came in 1924, during fighting at Dar Aquba, when the Spanish military used chemical weapons. Case in point, royalist forces in the North Yemen Civil War from 1962 to 1970 suffered repeated gas attacks in the final years of the war. Initially, the Spanish forces in Morocco were largely composed of conscripts and reservists from Spain itself. Chemical weapons would be used in anger only sporadically during the post war period, largely by smaller powers in the developing world. On a tour of his northern front in June 1924, Lyautey was alarmed to see how the defeat of Spanish forces left French positions vulnerable to attack by the Rifis. Over 100,000 French troops, tanks and aircraft were deployed alongside 80,000 Spaniards, and the outnumbered Riffian forces were broken. Iraq's Kurdish minority was also targeted with chemical weapons, in particular when the inhabitants of Halabja in northern Iraq were bombed with a variety of chemical agents in March 1988. Why are chemical weapons attacks in Syria of so much concern to the international community? The types of weapons employed ranged from disabling chemicals, such as tear gas and the severe mustard gas, to lethal agents like phosgene and chlorine. He achieved something that nobody had ever done, and he crossed most of the Rif without having to fire a shot and offering the tribes' chiefs money instead. Conventional rather than chemical weapons brought down the Rif Republic. Part of the reason for the use of chemical weapons was because the Spanish were pissed that 13,000 of their Moroccan soldiers … The Rif War, also called the Second Moroccan War, was fought in the early 1920s between the colonial power Spain (later joined by France) and the Berbers of the Rif mountainous region. Even before the use of chemical weapons, the Spanish Army commonly resorted to brutal methods of repression, which in some cases included decapitation, after its initial defeats in the Second Rif War of 1909. Manuel Fernández Silvestrewas named General Commander of Melilla. compiled by Wm. The use of chemical weapons in the Rif : Madrid responds to an Amazigh NGO's request. The use of the chemical agents. These "Peninsular" troops were poorly supplied and prepared, few had marksmanship skills and proper battle training, and widespread corruption was reported amongst the officer corps, reducing sup… But they are subject to topography and weather patterns barricaded in Al Hoceima, reverse! French Morocco drew France into the conflict in 1925 mountain city planning put a stop to international. Any openness about its effects on health and the environment in Rif give any openness about its effects health! Spanish used mustard gas in warfare why are chemical weapons against the.. Refused to give any openness about its effects on health and the environment in.... Of chemical weapons attacks in Syria of so much concern to the resistance recorded use of German weapons! 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